Aeronautics and Astronautics
Graduate Programs
MS-Global Navigation Satellite Systems
Course Outline
MS - Global Navigation Satellite Systems
First Semester
720201Fundamentals of GNSS3-0
720202GNSS Mathematics and Position determination techniques3-0
720203GNSS INS Integration3-0
Second Semester
720204GNSS Receivers3-0
720205Space weather and GNSS3-0
720206Sensors and embedded system design3-0
Third Semester
720207GNSS Applications3-0
720208GNSS augmentation systems3-0
Fourth Semester
Course Details
MS GNSS Course
720201Fundamentals of GNSS
I introductions to GNSS: Conventional navigation, background, concepts and evolutions of global navigation satellite systems (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou/ COMPASS) and regional navigations satellite systems (IRNSS, QZSS). Comparison of GNSS with other navigation systems;

Reference systems: Terrestrial, celestial and orbit coordinate reference system. Height Systems. Geoid. Time systems, synchronization and data conversion. Transformations between coordinate reference systems. Contribution of the International GNSS Service (IGS) to providing access to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF);

Satellite orbits: Orbital parameters. Orbital motion, representation (Keplerian elements, etc.) Determination of satellite position, visibility and ground tracks;

Basic techniques of communications: Propagation of electromagnetic waves. Antennas and propagation channels. Signal modulation and multiple accesses. Signal processing.
720202GNSS Mathematics and Position determination techniques
GNSS measurements: pseudo-ranges, carrier phase and Doppler;
Position determination techniques (general);
Single point position technique: models and estimation methods;
Satellite constellation and dilution of precision: satellite geometry, bounds and calculations on dilution of precision (DOP).
720203GNSS INS Integration
Inertial navigation systems. Accelerometer, Gyroscopes, Inertial platforms, Navigation equation, Integration of modelling equations in e-frame;

INS error dynamics: Simplified analysis, Error dynamics equations in e-frame, INS initialization and alignment;

GNSS/INS integration: Integration mode, Mathematical model of supported INS navigation, Observation procedures for inertial surveying; 6.4. General sensor fusion concepts.
720204GNSS Receivers
Receiver architecture: Technology, radio-frequency front end, signal processing system hardware and software techniques, software defined radio;

Signal tracking: Maximum likelihood estimate of delay and position, delay lock tracking of signal, coherent and non -coherent delay lock tracking of pseudo noise sequences, mean square error estimation, vector delay lock loop, receiver noise performance, maximum likelihood estimate, early late gating;

Navigation algorithm: Measurement of pseudo range, Doppler, decoding and using of navigation data, single point solution, precise point positioning, dynamics of user, Kalman filter, least-squares adjustment, and other alternatives
720205Space weather and GNSS
Sources of space weather and related background physics: Sun, galactic cosmic rays, magnetosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere coupling;

Impact of space weather events on GNSS;

Satellites, interference with solar radio emission, radio wave propagation;

Different view in precise (geodesy, DGPS) and safety of life (aviation) applications;

Ionospheric scintillations and their impact, monitoring and modeling;

GNSS-based monitoring of the ionosphere by ground and space based measurements;

Ionospheric correction and threat models.
720206Sensors and embedded system design
Sensors and transducers: Introduction, Sensor classification, characteristics and compensation, classification of transducers. Transducer descriptions, parameters, definitions and terminology;

Embedded systems: Cell phones, pagers, PDAs, answering machines, microwave ovens, televisions, VCRs, CD/DVD players, video game consoles, GNSS devices, network routers, fax machines, cameras, music synthesizers, planes, spacecraft, boats, and cars all contain embedded processors.
720207GNSS Applications
Geospatial databases: Geo extensions for Open Source Databases, POSTGRES, MySQL etc.

GNSS navigation: Professional and personal, GIS/mapping, Surveying, Natural Hazards management, Earth sciences, Natural resources, Infrastructure;

Navigation and communication: Integrated application;
Communication, navigation and surveillance: Integrated application;
GNSS applications for remote sensing of the atmosphere and space weather: Radio occultation technique for monitoring terrestrial weather (temperature and water vapour) and monitoring ionospheric weather (electron density and total electron content);

Revenue model for value added services;

Management, team work, intellectual property, business in GNSS.
720208GNSS augmentation systems
Errors in GNSS measurements: functional model and fundamental error equation, effect of GDO, classes of ranging errors and biases;

Error budget, user equivalent range error, position accuracy with one sigma and three sigma errors;

Error mitigation techniques: real time kinematic (RTK), differential GNSS
(DGGNSS), local area DGNSS, wide area DGNSS;
Augmented systems: Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS), System of Differential Correction and Monitoring (SDCM), Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) Satellite based Augmentation System (MSAS), GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN), etc.;

GNSS networks: Global, regional and local GNSS Permanent Networks and geodetic infrastructure for real positioning services;

GNSS impact factors and mitigation techniques: Orbit errors, clock errors, multipath, troposphere, ionosphere including higher order ionospheric refraction effects, vulnerability against space weather, jamming.
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